Category Archive S/w development life cycle


S/w development life cycle

The trend and competency of testing are changing. Testers are now required to be more technical and process oriented. Testing now is not only limited just to find bugs but has a wider scope and is required right from the beginning of the project when the requirements are not even finalized. Since testing is also standardized. Just like the development of software has a lifecycle, Testing too has a lifecycle. In the subsequent sections, I will be discussing what a life cycle is and how that is related to software testing and will try to elaborate it.

Lifecycle in the simple term refers to the sequence of changes from one form to other forms. These changes can happen to any tangible or intangible things. In a similar fashion, Software is also an entity. Just like developing software involves a sequence of steps, testing also has steps which should be executed in a definite sequence.

This phenomenon of executing the testing activities in a systematic and planned way is called testing life cycle. Software Testing Life Cycle refers to a testing process which has specific steps to be executed in a definite sequence to ensure that the quality goals have been met.

In the STLC process, each activity is carried out in a planned and systematic way. Each phase has different goals and deliverables.

Different organizations have different phases in STLC; however, the basis remains the same. Requirement Phase :. During this phase of STLC, analyze and study the requirements. Have brainstorming sessions with other teams and try to find out whether the requirements are testable or not. This phase helps to identify the scope of the testing. If any feature is not testable, communicate it during this phase so that the mitigation strategy can be planned. Planning Phase :. In practical scenarios, Test planning is the first step of the testing process.

In this phase, we identify the activities and resources which would help to meet the testing objectives. During planning we also try to identify the metrics, the method of gathering and tracking those metrics.

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The answer is NO. Requirements do form one of the bases but there are 2 other very important factors which influence test planning. These are:. We basically identify the test conditions through the requirements document, product risks, and other test bases. The test condition should be traceable back to the requirement.

We should try to write down the test conditions in a detailed way. The most important advantage of writing the detailed test condition is that it increases the test coverage since the test cases will be written on the basis of the test condition, these details will trigger to write more detailed test cases which will eventually increase the coverage.

Also, identify the exit criteria of the testing, i. Break down the test conditions into multiple sub-conditions to increase coverage. The major task in this STLC phase is of creation of the detailed test cases. Prioritize the test cases also identify which test case will become part of the regression suite. Before finalizing the test case, It is important to carry out the review to ensure the correctness of the test cases.The Waterfall Model was the first Process Model to be introduced.

It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In this waterfall model, the phases do not overlap. In "The Waterfall" approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases.

In this Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially. This system design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and helps in defining the overall system architecture.

Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality, which is referred to as Unit Testing. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures. To fix those issues, patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment. All these phases are cascaded to each other in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall through the phases.

The next phase is started only after the defined set of goals are achieved for previous phase and it is signed off, so the name "Waterfall Model". In this model, phases do not overlap. Every software developed is different and requires a suitable SDLC approach to be followed based on the internal and external factors. The advantages of waterfall development are that it allows for departmentalization and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process model phases one by one.Prototyping is defined as the process of developing a working replication of a product or system that has to be engineered.

It offers a small scale facsimile of the end product and is used for obtaining customer feedback as described below:. This model is used when the customers do not know the exact project requirements beforehand. In this model, a prototype of the end product is first developed, tested and refined as per customer feedback repeatedly till a final acceptable prototype is achieved which forms the basis for developing the final product.

In this process model, the system is partially implemented before or during the analysis phase thereby giving the customers an opportunity to see the product early in the life cycle. The process starts by interviewing the customers and developing the incomplete high-level paper model.

This document is used to build the initial prototype supporting only the basic functionality as desired by the customer.

Software Development Methodology Today

Once the customer figures out the problems, the prototype is further refined to eliminate them. The process continues until the user approves the prototype and finds the working model to be satisfactory.

In this method, a developed prototype need not necessarily be a part of the ultimately accepted prototype. Customer feedback helps in preventing unnecessary design faults and hence, the final prototype developed is of better quality.

In comparison to Rapid Throwaway Prototyping, it offers a better approach which saves time as well as effort. This is because developing a prototype from scratch for every iteration of the process can sometimes be very frustrating for the developers. C Incremental Prototyping — In this type of incremental Prototyping, the final expected product is broken into different small pieces of prototypes and being developed individually.

In the end, when all individual pieces are properly developed, then the different prototypes are collectively merged into a single final product in their predefined order. The time interval between the project begin and final delivery is substantially reduced because all parts of the system are prototyped and tested simultaneously. Of course, there might be the possibility that the pieces just not fit together due to some lack ness in the development phase — this can only be fixed by careful and complete plotting of the entire system before prototyping starts.

D Extreme Prototyping — This method is mainly used for web development. It is consists of three sequential independent phases:. This Extreme Prototyping method makes the project cycling and delivery robust and fast, and keeps the entire developer team focus centralized on products deliveries rather than discovering all possible needs and specifications and adding unnecessitated features.

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It can also be used if requirements are changing quickly. This model can be successfully used for developing user interfaces, high technology software-intensive systems, and systems with complex algorithms and interfaces. It is also a very good choice to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the product.

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What is RC4 Encryption? Most visited in Misc. Load Comments. We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website.A software development life cycle SDLC model is a conceptual framework describing all activities in a software development project from planning to maintenance. This process is associated with several models, each including a variety of tasks and activities.

Software development is a cumbersome activity requiring proper identification of requirements, their implementation, and software deployment. However, the activities do not end there. After the distribution of the software, proper maintenance has to be provided in a timely manner. This term is also known as software development process model.

The above development process is streamlined by a series of models. The development team selects the best suitable model.

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The different models are:. Do you work in the tech industry? Help us learn more about why the gender gap still exists in tech by taking this quick survey! Toggle navigation Menu.

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Home Dictionary Tags Software. After a thorough analysis of the requirements and planning steps to reach the target, the abstract client idea is put into practice by a group of software engineers. Software description: Describes that the software is the next step in the process. Abstract system representation: Is created to confirm that it meets the requirements of the product and interfaces with other software products together with the underlying hardware.

Client requirements: Implemented through the code programmed by software engineers. Code testing: The code is tested to make sure it is free of bugs and adheres to the client requirements. Documentation of the internal design: For future product maintenance and enhancement. Maintenance: It is performed to change the system architecture according to future needs.

This may require the addition of code or alteration of the existing code. The different models are: Waterfall model: Developers state the requirements, analyze them, determine a solution and frame a software architecture, interface representation, and algorithmic details. Then they develop the code, test the code, deploy the software, and maintain it. While the waterfall method is easy to understand and sets requirement stability, it might give a false impression of not providing much customer participation.

The main problem with this model is that the requirement to correct errors should be known upfront and at an early stage.

s/w development life cycle

Otherwise, the whole process may continue in a wrong direction, which could negatively impact the cost of production. V Shaped model: Is a variation of the waterfall model. It emphasizes verification and validation of the product. All deliverables are testable and progress is tracked by milestones.Shop now. Quality is a many-splendored thing, and every improvement of its attributes is at once an advance and an advantage. Both personal productivity and enterprise server software are routinely shipped to their users with defects, called bugs from the early days of computing.

This error rate and its consequent failures in operation would not be tolerated for any manufactured or "hardware" product sold today. But software is not a manufactured product in the same sense as a mechanical device or household appliance, even a desktop computer. Since programming began as an intellectual and economic activity with the ENIAC ina great deal of attention has been given to making software programs as reliable as the computer hardware they run on. Unlike most manufactured goods, software undergoes continual redesign and upgrading in practice because the system component adapts the general-purpose computer to its varied and often-changing, special-purpose applications.

As needs change, so must the software programs that were designed to meet them. A large body of technology has developed over the past 50 years to make software more reliable and hence trustworthy. This introductory chapter reviews the leading models for software development and proposes a robust software development model based on the best practices of the past, while incorporating the promise of more recent programming technology.

The Robust Software Development Model RSDM recognizes that although software is designed and "engineered," it is not manufactured in the usual sense of that word. Furthermore, it recognizes an even stronger need in software development to address quality problems upstream, because that is where almost all software defects are introduced.

Computing has been the fastest-growing technology in human history. The performance of computing hardware has increased by more than a factor of 10 10 10, million times since the commercial exploitation of the electronic technology developed for the ENIAC 50 years ago, first by Eckert and Mauchly Corp. In the same amount of time, programming performance, a highly labor-intensive activity, has increased by about times.

A productivity increase of this magnitude for a labor-intensive activity in only 50 years is truly amazing, but unfortunately it is dwarfed by productivity gains in hardware. In addition, the incredible increase in available computer hardware cycles has forced a demand for more and better software. Much of the increase in programming productivity has, as you might expect, been due to increased automation in computer software production.

Increased internal use of this enormous hardware largesse to offset shortcomings in software and "manware" have accounted for most of the gain. Programmers are not times more productive today because they can program faster or better, but because they have more sophisticated tools such as compilers, operating systems, program development environments, and integrated development environments.

They also employ more sophisticated organizational concepts in the cooperative development of programs and employ more sophisticated programming language constructs such as Object-Oriented Programming OOPclass libraries, and object frameworks.Some professions and positions are amazingly clear: The dentist fixes teeth, the architect plans houses, the journalist reports what happened.

Nevertheless, there are some mistakes that can jeopardize about any project, no matter how unique the circumstances.

In the following paragraphs, we would like to share five of them that can make your project fail — or thrive, if you make sure to get this right from the beginning. Sometimes a project starts, but not every detail is clear. However, as time progresses and core structures are being built, the lack of a clear vision becomes more and more of a problem.

This can be a tedious process, especially if the client is unclear about his goals or has difficulty articulating them. A good product owner is able to assist the client and take the lead when necessary to come up with a product vision that is comprehensive, thought-through and makes clear to the team where the project is heading.

s/w development life cycle

If product vision is lacking, prioritizing the product- and sprint-backlog becomes very tricky. Priorities should be based on product vision and business value — if either is unknown, the product owner has not worked hard enough to sort this out. If client and PO agree on what the project is about right at the beginning, a lot of questions and conflicts that may arise later can be settled quickly by reiterating the goal and vision of the product.

If they are seen as three separate and independent chunks of work, starting with either of them is okay. In the end, they have the same business value to the client.

s/w development life cycle

However, if the product vision is to create an online community that connects people with like-minded individuals around the world, the calendar should come last — because it promotes local connectes rather than global ones. In this case, a clear product vision helps prioritizing in a way that the business values might not be able to.

Do you have your own office room? Maybe even on the top floor with a great view, far above the developer cubicles? Nice — but probably not very good for your project. Being physically and intellectually present and avaible to the team is crucial to keep product development on track throughout the sprint.

Also, by being confronted with the questions that the team has during a sprint, the PO can improve his specifications for the upcoming sprint and make sure future stories are more clear. For the same reason, the product owner must physically attend the sprint planning meeting and the review meeting — plus the retrospective and daily scrum meetings, if possible. PO attendance at these meetings cannot be delegated to the scrum master or another team member.

Others who know what they want control every move and forget why they hired a PO in the first place. Having a product owner who is not given sufficient authority and autonomy by his client or CEO is almost as inefficient has not having a product owner at all: If the PO cannot make decisions when fundamental questions arise during the sprint, it is likely that someone within the team will start filling in and taking on the role of the product owner.

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In another scenario, CEO or client are taking over the role of the PO and start micromanaging the project and its team. Furthermore, the quality of product management decreases, because neither CEO nor client are able to be as present as a PO should and could be. SCRUM is a loose set of guidelines that govern the development process of a product, from its design stages to its completion.

It aims to cure some common failures of the typical development process, such as:. SCRUM has been successfully employed by hundreds of different companies in many different fields, with outstanding results.

The sprint cycle is an iterative cycle of about weeks, in which the actual development of the product is done. It starts out with a Sprint Planning Meeting to decide what will be done in the current sprint.

Then the development is done. A sprint is closed with a Sprint Review Meeting where the progress made in the last sprint is demonstrated, the sprint is reviewed, and adjustments are made to the project as necessary.

The product is complete when the variables of time, quality, competition, and cost are at a balance.By joining Download. Free YouTube Downloader. Advanced SystemCare Free. Internet Download Manager. WinRAR bit.

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s/w development life cycle

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Faudal Posted on10:12 pm - Oct 2, 2012

es ist der Sonderfall.